"物体保持静止或运动状态，直到并除非受到外力作用。”牛顿第一运动定律，this law by Sir Isaac Newton gave rise to the development of braking system in an automobile,开发汽车不仅需要动力源，而且高效的制动系统，因为马力越高，停车或减速所需的制动力也越大。This thought gave rise to many researches in the field of braking and results in its evolution due to which today we have flexibility in choosing a suitable braking system according to our need.So let's just start our article with the curiosity about the various types of braking system.
In an automobile vehicle,制动系统是各种联动装置和部件（制动管路或机械联动装置，brake drum or brake disc,,主缸or fulcrums etc) that are arranged in such a fashion that it converts the vehicle's kinetic energy into the heat energy which in turn stops or de accelerate the vehicle.
Need of a Braking System
- To stop the moving vehicle.
- To de accelerate the moving vehicle.
- For stable parking of a vehicle either on a flat surface or on a slope.
- As a precaution for accidents.
Classification of Braking System
As we have already discussed the evolution of braking system from vintage carts to modern cars,从老爷车到现代卡车，我们拥有各种不同用途的制动系统，这些系统根据汽车的各种需求和用途进行分类。so let's just discuss them-
1.On the Basis of Power Source
The power source which carries the pedal force applied by the driver on brake pedal to the final brake drum or brake disc in order to de accelerate or stop the vehicle the braking systems are of 6 types-
- Mechanical braking system
- Magnetic braking system
- Electric braking system
On the basis of the final friction contact made between the rotating brake components i.e.brake drum or disc rotor and the brake shoe the braking systems are of 2 types-
(i) Internal expanding brakes (e.g.-drum brakes)
(ii) External contracting brakes(e.g.disc brakes)
On the basis of method of applying brakes,braking systems are of 2 types-
(ii) Hand or parking brakes
4。On the Basis of Brake Force Distribution
(i) Single acting brakes
(ii) Dual acting brakes
Detailed Description of Different Types of Braking Systems
It is the type of braking system in which the brake force applied by the driver on the brake pedal is transferred to the final brake drum or disc rotor through the various mechanical linkages like cylindrical rods,fulcrums,弹簧等。In order to de accelerate or stop the vehicle.
- Mechanical brakes were used in various old automobile vehicles but they are obsolete now days due to their less effectiveness.
它是一种制动系统，驾驶员施加在制动踏板上的制动力首先通过主缸(for reference read article on master cylinder) than this hydraulic pressure from master cylinder is transferred to the final brake drum or disc rotor through brake lines.
- 而不是机械连接，brake fluid is used in hydraulic brakes for the transmission of brake pedal force in order to stop or de accelerates the vehicle.
3.Air or Pneumatic Brakes-
It is the types of braking system in which atmospheric air through compressors and valves is used to transmit brake pedal force from brake pedal to the final drum or disc rotor.
- Air brakes are mainly used in heavy vehicles like busses and trucks because hydraulic brakes fails to transmit high brake force through greater distance and also pneumatic brakes generates higher brake force than hydraulic brake which is the need of the heavy vehicle.
- The chances of brake failure is less in case of pneumatic brakes as they are usually equipped with a reserve air tank which comes in action when there is a brake failure due to leakage in brake lines.
- High end cars these days are using air brakes system due to its effectiveness and fail proof ability.
我t is the conventional type of braking system in which vacuum inside the brake lines causes brake pads to move which in turn finally stops or de accelerate the vehicle.
- Exhauster主缸，brake lines,valves along with disc rotor or drum are the main components that combines together to make a vacuum braking system
- Vacuum brakes were used in old or conventional trains and are replaced with air brakes now days because of its less effectiveness and slow braking.
- Vacuum brakes are cheaper than air brakes but are less safe than air brakes.
In this types of braking system,the magnetic field generated by permanent magnets is used to cause the braking of the vehicle.
- 它的原188金宝博登陆网址理是，当我们把磁铁穿过库珀管时，eddy current is generated and the magnetic field generated by this eddy current provide magnetic braking.
- This is the friction less braking system thus there is less or no wear and tear.
- This is the advanced technology in which no pressure is needed to cause braking.
- The response to the braking in this is quite quick as compared to other braking systems.
我t是电动汽车中使用的制动类型，其中制动是使用电动汽车的主要动力来源电动机产生的，it is further divided into 3 types-
(i) Plugging Brakes-When the brake pedal is pressed in the electric vehicle equipped with plugging braking,the polarity of the motors changes which in turn reverses the direction of the motor and causes the braking.
（ii）再生制动—它是一种电制动，在制动时，作为车辆主要动力源的电机成为发电机，即发电机。当制动时，the power supply to the motor cuts off due to which the mechanical energy from the wheels becomes the rotating force for the motor which in turn converts this mechanical energy into the electric energy which is further stored in the battery.
- Tesla Model-S provides the most effective regenerative braking.
(iii) Dynamic or Rheostat Braking-它是由变阻器提供的电阻引起实际制动的电制动类型，在这种类型中，变阻器连接到电路上，该电路向负责车辆减速或停车的电机提供电阻。
On Frictional Contact Basis
1.Drum Brakes or Internal Expanding Brakes
It is the type of brake system in which a drum which is the housing of the brake shoes along with actuation mechanism is attached with the wheel hub in such a fashion that the outer part of the drum rotates with the wheel and inner part remains constant.
It is the types of braking system in which instead of a drum assembly a disc rotor attached to the hub of the wheel in such a fashion that it rotates with the wheel,该盘形转子夹在制动钳之间，制动钳与转向节或车辆直立部分刚性固定。
- This caliper used is the housing of the brake shoes along with the actuation mechanism (mechanical linkages or caliper cylinder).
It is the type of brakes in which the brakes are applied when the driver presses the brake pedal mounted inside the cockpit or at the foot space of the vehicle with his foot,this pedal force applied by the driver is further multiplied and sent to the braking drum or disc either by mechanical linkages or by hydraulic pressure which in turn causes braking.
- In cars foot operated brakes are used and in bikes the combination of foot and hand operated brakes are used.
2。Hand Brake or Parking Brake–
这种类型的制动器也被称为紧急制动器，因为它们独立于主行车制动器，hand brakes consists of a hand operated brake lever which is connected to the brake drum or disc rotor through the metallic cable.
- When hand brake lever is pulled,金属杆产生张力，金属杆反过来驱动制动鼓或制动盘转子机构，并发生最终制动。
On Brake Force Distribution Basis
It is the type of braking in which brake force is transferred to either a pair of wheels(in cars) or to the single wheel(in bikes) through single actuation mechanism(mechanical linkages or主缸).
- These types of braking system is commonly used in bikes or in light purpose vehicles.
2。Dual Acting Brakes-
It is the type of braking in which the brake force is transferred to all the wheels of the vehicle through dual actuation mechanism (tandem master cylinder or mechanical linkages).
- This type of braking is used in cars as well as in heavy purpose vehicle.
Application of Different Types of Braking
- Mechanical brakes-Cars like Ford Model Y and bikes like Bajaj pulsar 180cc.
- 液压制动器-Modern cars like Maruti Suzuki swift and bikes like KTM Duke 390.
- Air brakes–Volvo buses and various heavy vehicles
- 真空制动器 old trains
- 电磁制动器- 布加迪威龙和各种超跑车。
- Electric braking-特斯拉S型采用再生式电制动。
- Drum brake-Old Maruti 800 and Tata 407
- Disc brake-All modern cars like Hyundai i20.
- Hand brake and foot brake–所有汽车。
- 单作用–TVS Appache 180 front disc.
- Dual acting-All 4 wheel cars and trucks.